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A final purpose was to find out whether men and women gained more from dream interpretation that focused on their own dream as opposed to dream I need some pussy in New Orleans Louisiana focused on their partner's dream. research in individual dream interpretation Hill et al. But members of a couple might feel differently than unrelated individuals working on dreams because the other person is important in their lives.
De In this study, maarriage first compared the effects of couples dream interpretation to no treatment for male and female participants.
Hence, 20 couples were randomly ased to treatment and 20 couples were randomly ased to a wait-list condition. Couples in the treatment condition completed pre-session measures, participated in two dream sessions separated by one week, and then completed post-session measures. Couples in the control condition completed pre-session measures, waited two weeks, and then completed the same measures again. Once they had completed the second round of measures, couples in the Beautiful ladies looking seduction Charleston condition participated in two dream sessions separated by a week, and then took the post-session measures.
To examine the effects of treatment, male participants in the treatment condition were compared to male participants in the control condition, and female participants in the treatment condition were compared to female participants in the control condition for changes across time datong relationship well-being and insight.
To examine reactions to dream interpretation sessions, data for gains from dream interpretation were combined for males in the treatment and control conditions and females in the treatment and control mxrriage. Most participants i. All participants had been dating exclusively for at least three months and were not married. Only one participant had been married ly. Participants were unaware of the hypotheses of this study and whether they were in the treatment or wait-list control condition.
Therapists Seventeen therapists 12 women, 5 new fresno escort backpage 12 European American, 2 Hispanic American, 2 African American, 1 Asian Americanincluding the first author, participated in this study. All therapists were dwting students in counseling or clinical psychology who had taken at least one practicum course and who had been trained in Hill's model for working with dreams for individuals and for couples. Two of the undergraduates and the first author rated insight and coded the follow-up telephone interviews.
Interviewers and judges were unaware of the experimental condition when doing interviews or making judgments. Measures Demographic Form The demographic form for both clients and therapists asked for age, year in college, gender, and ethnicity. In addition, therapists were asked about their level of clinical experience, their level of experience rDeam the Hill model of dream interpretation, and their theoretical orientation. The overall scale indicates the Dreaam of communication between two partners including their avoidance of unpleasant topics and their openness in expressing themselves to one another.
Although the measure has Ladies seeking sex Ravia Oklahoma used mostly with married couples, the content of the items seemed applicable to dating couples. Higher scores refer to more positively-viewed communication. Locke et al. In the current study, the internal consistency Cronbach's alpha of the measure was. The Self and Other Dyadic Perspective-Taking Cating SDPT and ODPT; Long, Self perspective-taking has been defined as "the ability to understand what marriagge other individual is thinking, to put oneself in another's place, and intellectually to understand without vicariously experiencing the other's emotions" Hogan, Dyadic perspective-taking mariage defined by Long as an attempt to understand the point of view of the other person in the dyad.
Individuals respond to how Deram the statement describes their Hot women looking nsa Philadelphia with their partners datiing. Scores are summed across items some items are reverse scored with higher scores representing greater perspective-taking tendencies. The ODPT scale measures the individual's perception of the marriaeg of one's partner in the context of a relationship. The scale consists of Omg at granny adult girl jones items using the same 5-point Likert-type scale.
Individuals are asked to respond to how well the statement describes their partner's behavior e. Wives' and husbands' perspective-taking scores were correlated positively with their own dyadic datinf scores, indicating concurrent validity. In the current study, the internal consistency reliability estimate was.
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The remaining two items use 6- and 7-point Likert scales to measure degree of happiness in the relationship and feelings about the future of the relationship. Spanier reported Lady wants casual sex Richton internal consistency Cronbach's alpha of. Numerous studies have found correlations in the expected direction with other measures of marital satisfaction e.
In the current study, Cronbach's alpha was. Gains from Dream Interpretation Heaton et al. In the present study, the internal consistency Cronbach's alpha was. Client Insight into Dream After writing the dream, clients responded to the following questions about the dream: "What do you think this dream means to you? How would this interpretation help explain recent events in your life?
Judges used boo shemale backpage definition of insight from Hill et al. Insight typically involves an 'aha' experience whereby the client perceives himself or herself or the world in a new way. The client takes appropriate responsibility rather locanto blackburn girls blaming others, using 'shoulds' imposed from the outside world, or rationalizing" pp.
Interrater reliabilities Cronbach's alphas of. In the current study, the interrater reliability Cronbach's alpha was. Client Insight into Partner's Dream In addition to writing an interpretation of one's own dream as mentioned aboveclients also Millionaire seeks hot Hilo1 an interpretation of their partner's dream. Clients were asked to respond to the following questions about their partner's Melrose park IL bi horny wives "What do you think this dream means for your partner?
How would this interpretation help explain recent events in your partner's life? Client Insight Into the Relationship Clients were also asked to respond to the following questions about their relationship: "What do you think Women want sex Chippewa-on-the-Lake dream means for your relationship? How would this interpretation help explain recent events in your relationship?
The interrater reliability Cronbach's alpha was. Overall, the couples suggested that the sessions helped them understand their partners and their relationship better. One participant stated that "The dream session helped to put something hazy and almost unrecognizable into perspective so that now he and I can go over hurdles together.
I learned a lot about myself too. The therapist training was divided into three parts. First, a didactic presentation refamiliarized therapists with the basic concepts of the dream interpretation model and applied the principles to working with couples. Second, Meet local singles Bowstring practiced the mechanics of conducting a dream interpretation session with each other. Third, each therapist conducted a dream interpretation session with a volunteer couple and received feedback from a supervisor.
Participant Recruitment Participants were recruited through flyers posted throughout campus, announcements in undergraduate and graduate classes, electronic mail announcements, up sheets for introductory to psychology course credit, and referral from participating couples. In the announcement, potential clients were offered the opportunity to have dream interpretation Naked singles in Latimer OK with their partner if they were in a committed heterosexual relationship and were between the ages of 18 and 30 years.
The remaining two couples did not show up for their sessions. Initial Contact Potential clients were informed that they would complete measures and then have their first session as soon as possible treatment condition or would be scheduled for their first dream session in approximately two weeks when a therapist became available wait list condition.
Each participant was asked to bring a written copy of a recent dream to the first session. Pre-Session Testing After arriving for the session, each member of the couple ed a consent form and completed the demographic form, Primary Communication Inventory, Differentiation of Self Inventory, Other Dyadic Perspective-Taking Scale, Self Dyadic Perspective-Taking Scale, Spanier's Dyadic Satisfaction Subscale, interpretations of their own dream, their partner's dream, and how their dreams related to their relationship.
The clients in the treatment condition began their session immediately after filling out the forms. Clients in the wait-list condition were reminded that they would return two weeks later at which time they would complete the measures again before the first dream session. Dream Interpretation Sessions At the beginning of the session, the therapist reviewed the written dream the clients brought to the session to determine whether the length was appropriate.
If the dream seemed too lengthy, the client was asked to select a portion of the dream to work with in the session. The first session focused on one partner's dream and the second session focused on the other partner's dream, with each Fuck singles tonight in Lahr choosing at the beginning of the first session whose dream would be focused on first. The second dream session was conducted one week after the first dream session was conducted.
Each couple had two 90 to minute dream interpretation sessions conducted by the same therapist, using the couples dream interpretation guidelines set forth in the therapist training. Post-Session Testing Immediately following each session, the therapist completed the Therapist Adherence measure, and each member of the couple completed the Gains from Dream Interpretation scale. Approximately one week after the second dream session, each member of the couple completed the Primary Communication Inventory, the Self Dyadic Perspective-Taking scale, the Other Dyadic Perspective-Taking scale, the Dyadic Satisfaction Subscale, and the interpretations of own dream, partner's dream, and the relationship.
Rater Training Two raters were trained to rate insight for this study using data from studies until an interrater reliability Cronbach's alpha of. They Hot sweet fun Indianapolis guy seeking cutie rated the actual written interpretations from Sete lagoas girl naked current study for the dreamer's dream, the partner's dream, and the relationship.
All interpretations from each client were presented at the same time, but in random order, so that raters could compare across interpretations but were unaware of which interpretation they were rating pre- vs.
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Also, the first author did not rate insight on the sessions she conducted. The datiny for men and women were analyzed separately due to the dependence of the data i. Table I shows the means and standard deviations for all variables used in the analyses for men and women. Therapist Adherence To determine whether therapists adhered to the Hill model, it was decided a priori that each therapist must rate himself or herself at least 5 or above on at least two of the three scales and at least 5 on the overall competence.
All cases met this criterion, Mature women 85016 lancs thus no cases were dropped. In addition, the overall adherence scores were within one standard Housewives wants casual sex FL Orlando 32805 of those reported in studies for individual dream interpretation e.
Heaton et al. All sessions met the requirements for therapist adherence in both sessions i.
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Furthermore, none of the scores for session outcome variables were outliers. Hence, karriage of the cases were dropped. Thus, it can be concluded that this sample was similar to samples on all measures. Correlations Among Pre-Session Measures Correlations were computed among all pre-session measures to determine whether the measures could mqrriage combined. Two clusters of measures emerged See Table II : relationship well-being empathy, communication, and relationship satisfaction and insight insight into own dream, insight into partner's dream, and insight into relationship.
The Fuck creighton Swinging consistency Cronbach's alpha for the four scores was. Thus, the four outcome measures were combined into one factor labeled "relationship well-being.
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The internal consistency Cronbach's alpha for the three scores was. Thus, the three insight measures mardiage combined into one factor. Comparison of Conditions on Demographic Datint Independent samples t-tests revealed no differences between the treatment and wait list conditions for client age, race, or any relationship variables e.
Hence, random asment resulted in two comparable groups on the measured client demographic ddating. Therapist Effects To examine the therapist effects, all but one dting were entered into simultaneous linear regression equations as dummy variables with change in relationship well-being, change in insight, and GDI as dependent variables.
The centered data for relationship well-being were used for the remaining analyses. The laid back lebanon tennessee friend analyses for change in insight and GDI were not ificant, indicating no therapist effects; hence, raw data were used for these variables.
To further Milf dating in Birdsboro that were not biased by the first author's participation as a therapist in this study, regression analyses were examined to determine whether the first author's clients had different scores on the dependent variables of relationship well-being, insight, and GDI, as compared to clients of the other therapists.
No ificant differences were found, so all the first author's cases were included in the remaining analyses. Finally, to examine whether therapist experience level was related to gains from mxrriage interpretation, change scores on the relationship well-being outcome measure, and change in insight, correlations were computed. Therapist experience was not ificantly correlated with any of the outcome measures, and thus was not considered in remaining analyses.
Hence, therapists' adherence was similar to that of therapists in studies of individual dream interpretation. Motivation Check Because may have varied based on whether or not the partner ed up for marriaage study, we tested whether differed on the basis of who ed up, separately for men and women. Independent sample t-tests comparing the 30 women who ed up for the study to the 10 women who did not up were not ificant for any of the dependent variables.
Similarly, independent sample t-tests comparing the Wives looking casual sex Noyack men who ed up for the study Adult want casual sex PA Ashville 16613 the 30 men who did not up were not ificant for any of the dependent variables. Hence, there were no differences based on whether or not the person ed up. We also wondered whether introductory psychology students would have different outcomes from non-introductory psychology students, given that the former received course credit for participation but the latter did not.
To test differences between these two groups, separate independent sample t-tests were conducted with course as the independent variable and change in relationship well-being, change in insight, and GDI as the separate Naked petoskey women. Swinging. variables. Drea of these tests were ificant for men or women.
Changes in Relationship Well-Being and Insight 1 x 2 ANOVAs Dreqm conducted marrage for men and women, with condition as the independent variable and change in relationship well-being and change in insight as the dependent variables. For women, the main effect for condition dream interpretation vs. For men, neither main effect for condition was ificant. Hence, women gained in relationship well-being Chat with horny people from Danbury Connecticut insight, whereas men did not.
Gains From Dream Interpretation For this analysis, the treatment and control groups were combined. Hence, marriagge made more gains than did men from dream interpretation sessions. Working on Own Dream vs. Partner's Dream For this analysis, the treatment and control groups were combined. A paired samples t-test was conducted to compare scores on the GDI for working on one's own dream to scores on the GDI for working on the partner's dream.
Hence, there were no differences in gains from dream interpretation when participants focused on their own dreams versus their partners' dreams. In contrast, men who received dream interpretation did not make ificant improvements as compared to men on a wait list. These are consistent with DuranaSacher and Fineand Engel and Saracinowho found that women were more likely to report relationship changes over time as compared to men.
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Furthermore, the verbal sharing that was requested in the couples dream interpretation sessions may have appealed more to the women than the men, and thus the men may have been less interested in and comfortable with the sessions. In addition, it Horney people ready seniors looking for sex that using the adapted Hill model for couples allowed women to learn more about themselves, their partners, and their relationships. The Hill method of dream interpretation has demonstrated gains in judge-rated insight e.
Hill et al. The interpersonal nature of the couples dream interpretation may be threatening to men. Partner's Dream No differences were found in self-reported gains in dream interpretation when interpreting one's own dream as compared to projecting onto the partner's dream. In other words, both men and women reported gains from interpreting their own dream as well as from interpreting their partner's dream "as if it were their own.
An important difference between the Marrkage et al. It would make sense that one might feel a stronger connection to a dream of someone with whom one feels close Looking for intimate encounter Spokane connected, as opposed to the dream of some unknown person.
Also, it may be that it is easier for members of a couple to project onto their partners' dream because they have shared some of the same waking life experiences that day or week. The lack of differences between the two types of sessions Sweet housewives want sex tonight Waterbury terms of self-rated gains in dream interpretation suggests that both sessions were meaningful for participants and that the dreamer's partner gained from being present for their partner's dream session.
Limitations One limitation of the current study is that we were not able to assess separate aspects of relationship well-being i. A second limitation is the potential bias in examining insight via judge ratings, given that judges read only the dream and the dreamer's interpretation of that dream. Another limitation is that the dating couples in the current study may have been different from dating couples who seek counseling.
Dating clients who are not distressed in their relationships may not be as motivated to change their relationships as clients who seek datng counseling. Hence, generalizations to a client population should be made with caution. In addition, clients participated in only two sessions of dream Drexm. Clients who were distressed when the study began may have required more than two sessions to notice any improvement.
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